Interesting comparison of the same food web 200 years appart. The difference is predation by man. We seem to have a disproportionate impact on higher trophic levels.
A description of the Last Universal Common Ancestor LUCA. Prior to the use of DNA, before life created an oxygen atmosphere on earth, there was LUCA the ancestor of all living things; Eukaryotes, Archaea, and Eubacteria. this article describes what LUCA may have been like.
Large scale quantum affects like these are the final nail in the coffin of determinism. If Roger Penrose and Stuart Kauffman are to be believed, and human consciousness is a result of the collapse of a large scale quantum wave function then free will is also assured. I suspect we are going to find larger and larger scale quantum behaviors. Very exciting stuff!
CERN computers are being used to search for auto-catalytic sets, the precursors of life, 65,000 candidate molecules have been identified so far. Future searches will go "further and deeper"
MIT and Northeastern University researchers devised a computer algorithm that can generate a controllability structure for any complex network. This structure identifies a small number of nodes in the network which, if controlled, will control the behavior of the entire network.